December 26, 1982 (Morning)
Bethlehem Baptist Church
John Piper, Pastor
CALL ME HUSBAND, NOT BAAL
The book of Hosea has two main parts: chapters 1-3 tell about Hosea's marriage to Gomer
and its prophetic meaning for Israel; chapters 4-14 give excerpts from Hosea's preaching of
grace and judgment leading up to the fall of Israel in 722 B.C. Chapters 1-3 are so powerful
and personal that I want to walk through them with you and make some brief comments
and applications as we go. If you grasp the point of chapters 1-3 you have grasped the
point of the book. I believe the point for us at Bethlehem at the end of 1982 is: Love God
warmly as your husband, don't just serve him as your Lord.
Let's begin with 1:1, "The word of the Lord came to Hosea, the son of Beeri, in the days of
Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jereboam the son
of Joash, king of Israel." This means that Hosea was prophesying in the thirty years or so
leading up to Assyria's destruction of Israel in 722 B.C. The whole book seems to be
addressed to the northern kingdom of Israel, not the southern kingdom of Judah. So Hosea
is a contemporary of Amos, and they were addressing the same corrupt and idolatrous
northern kingdom during the last decades of its existence.
But Hosea is utterly unique in one respect. God made him live the tragedy of Israel's
unfaithfulness by marrying a harlot. What follows is shocking because the idolatry of Israel
is shocking. Verses 2,3: "When the Lord first spoke through Hosea, the Lord said to
Hosea, 'Go take to yourself a wife of harlotry and have children of harlotry, for the land
commits great harlotry by forsaking the Lord.' So he went and took Gomer the daughter of
Diblaim and she conceived and bore him a son." Some Christians who would never dream
of marrying a pimp or a prostitute will fall in love with a well-bred unbeliever. But in God's
eyes, everyone who forsakes the Lord is a whore. There are no religious singles in God's
eyes. Everyone is either faithfully married to God or is a prostitute. God made you (not just
Israel) for himself. If you get your kicks from somewhere else you commit great harlotry
against God. That was Israel's condition. And so God took Hosea and said, as it were,
"Before I give you a word of judgment and grace, I am going to make you know what it's
like to be married to an unfaithful wife. Go, marry a harlot!" Hosea obeys and has a son.
His marriage is an acted-out parable of God's relation to Israel.
Verses 4,5: "And the Lord said to him, 'Call his name Jezreel; for yet a little while and I will
punish the house of Jehu for the blood of Jezreel, and I will put an end to the kingdom of
the house of Israel. And on that day I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel."'
Gomer is going to bear three children and each one is going to symbolize the judgment of
God which harlotry always begets. The first is named Jezreel to remind the people of the
fury of Jehu (a former king of Israel) when he killed Joram and Amaziah and Jezebel and
70 sons of Ahab in the city of Jezreel. Even though Jehu was carrying out the penal
purposes of God, he was reckless and impetuous and high-handed in his dealings. When
God says in verse 5 that he will therefore break the bow of Israel, he means that this is
still Israel's spirit. She is unfaithful and begets violence and treachery. The first son stands
for this sin of Israel.
Verses 6-9: "She [Gomer] conceived again and bore a daughter. And the Lord said to him,
'Call her name Not Pitied, for I will no more have pity on the house of Israel, to forgive them
at all. But I will have pity on the house of Judah, and I will deliver them by the Lord their
God; I will not deliver them by bow, nor by sword nor by war nor by horses nor by
horsemen.' When she had weaned Not Pitied, she conceived and bore a son, and the Lord
said, 'Call his name Not My People, for you are not my people and I am not your God."'
Hosea doesn't tell us whether these last two were his children or not. When your wife is a
harlot you never know. But, like Jezreel, their names show what harlotry, or forsaking the
Lord, begets: God's pity will come to an end and he will cast off Israel as his people. There
is a point of no return in the faithlessness of a wife and the faithlessness of a people.
But 1:10-2:1 show that these judgments are not the last word. Judgment may be coming
(as indeed it came in 722 B.C. when the Assyrians deported Israel) but somewhere down
the line God would have back his people, his wife of harlotry.
Yet the number of the people of Israel shall be like the sand of the sea, which can be
neither measured nor numbered; and in the place where it was said to them, 'You are
not my people,' it shall be said to them, 'Sons of the living God.' And the people of
Israel and the people of Judah shall be gathered together, and they shall appoint for
themselves one head and they shall go up from the land, for great shall be the day of
Jezreel. Say to your brother, 'My people,' and to your sister, 'She has obtained pity.'
God may replace pity with wrath for a season. He may disinherit some generations of
Israel. But he will not give up Israel forever. He will, at some future time, overcome the
alienation of "Not pitied" and "Not my people" and great will be the day of Jezreel.
So (to sum up chapter one) Hosea married a harlot to symbolize and act out God's
relation to faithless Israel. She had three children whose names symbolize God's
judgment which unfaithfulness begets. Yet the promise is given that some day the
judgment will be reversed.
In 2:2 Hosea speaks again of his wife, Gomer. But there are also words of God to his
faithless wife, Israel: "Plead with your mother, plead -- for she is not my wife, and I am not
her husband -- that she put away her harlotry from her face and her adultery from between
her breasts, lest I strip her naked and make her as in the day she was born…" Hosea is
now back where he started in 1:2. He is not thinking of Israel as the violent child Jezreel or
as bastards born of harlotry (as he did in 1:6-8). He is thinking now of Israel again as a
wife of harlotry. And in 2:2-13 Hosea and God speak as one about the faithlessness of
their wives and the judgment coming upon them. Three verses sum up this unit: first, verse
5, "Their mother has played the harlot; she that conceived them has acted shamefully. For
she said, 'I will go after my lovers, who give me my bread and my water, my wool and my
flax, my oil and my drink."' Then in verse 8 God says, "She did not know that it was I who
gave her the grain, the wine and the oil, and who lavished upon her silver and gold which
she used for Baal." Then verse 13, "I will punish her for the feast days of the Baals, when
she burned incense to them and decked herself with her ring and jewelry and went after
her lovers and forgot me, says the Lord." In those three verses we see the tragedy of
Israel: 1) God wants to be her husband but she is a harlot loving other gods; 2) all she has
she gets from her true husband but thinks she is getting it from the Baals; 3) God will
punish this harlotry. For when he is treated as less than a husband he shows that he is
vastly more than a husband.
Hosea 2:14-23 is one of the tenderest and most beautiful love songs in the Bible. It is sung
by God to his unfaithful wife, Israel. But before we look at it, skip over to chapter 3. Here
we see Hosea and Gomer for the last time. She has run off and lives now with a paramour,
a "significant other." So Hosea is free, right? Now he can get a divorce. She has ended the
marriage once and for all. She has another man. Hosea is free. Right? Wrong! God would
not give up on Israel, and he aims for Hosea to symbolize his undying love to his wife of
harlotry. Verse 1: "The Lord said to me, 'Go again and love a woman who is beloved of a
paramour and is an adulteress; even as the Lord loves the people of Israel, though they
turn to other gods and love cakes of raisins.' So I bought her for 15 shekels of silver and a
homer and a lethech of barley." When you think a moment on what God asked Hosea to
do here, you get a glimpse into what God's love for us in our wretchedness is like.
She had been faithless all along and finally she had gone off with another man. Hosea
could have had her stoned by law, just like we stand condemned by law. But God
commands him to love her. "Go again, love her." And not just to go and get her and love
her but to even be willing to pay this "significant other" for her. If that was not almost an
emotional impossibility, Hosea could not afford it. If he could have he probably would have
paid cash. But he couldn't. So he paid half in cash and half in barley. And the total
amounted to what Exodus 21:32 says a female slave costs. Gomer had evidently sunk to
the lowest possible level. And God says to Hosea, "Get her back, whatever it costs, get
The reason God could expect that of Hosea is that he aims to do just that with his
wayward Israel and he had shown this to Hosea in 2:14-23. Recall from other messages
the principle that guides me in my interpretation of passages like this. It looks beyond the
Assyrian captivity to a literal fulfillment for ethnic Israel some day. But the fulfillment will
also include us who are children of Abraham by faith (Rom. 4:16, Gal. 3:7,29). When
Christians read Hosea 2:14-23 they should say, "Those are promises for me; that is God's
will for me." This principle is confirmed here by the fact that Paul, in Romans 9:24, and
Peter, in 1 Peter 2:10, apply Hosea 2:23 to the church. So this is a word of God for us
I see in Hosea 2:14-23 at least three things God does for us, his rebellious wife, to win us
back; and I see one overriding thing that he wants from us. The first thing he does is woo
us tenderly. Verse 14: "Behold, I will allure her and bring her into the wilderness and speak
tenderly to her." We are all guilty of harlotry. We have loved other lovers more than God.
We have gotten our kicks elsewhere. He has been at times an annoying deity. We, like
Gomer, were enslaved to a paramour, the world, pleasure, ambition. But God has not cast
us off. He promises to take us into the wilderness. He wants to be alone with us. Why?
So that he can speak tenderly to us. Literally, the Hebrew says, so that he can speak "to
her heart." And when he speaks he will allure you. He will entice you and woo you. He will
say what a lover says to his lady when they walk away from the party into the garden. God
wants to talk that way with you. Go with him into the wilderness and listen with your heart.
Do not think you are too ugly or too rotten. He knows that his wife is a harlot. That's the
meaning of mercy: God is wooing a wife of harlotry.
The second thing God does is promise her hope and safety. Verse 15: "And there I will
give her vineyards and make the valley of Achor a door of hope." The valley of Achor is
where Israel was first unfaithful to the Lord in the promised land. Just after Israel entered
the land Achan kept the forbidden booty and caused the defeat at Ai. But now God
promises that if his harlot will come home Achor will no longer be a "valley of trouble"
(Josh. 7:26) but a door of hope. She will come home to rich vineyards. Verse 18 spells out
her hope in more detail: "I will make for you a covenant on that day with the beasts of the
field, the birds of the air and the creeping things of the ground, and I will abolish the bow,
the sword and war from the land; and I will make you lie down in safety." If only his
estranged wife will come home she will find a paradise with her husband: he will make a
pact even with the animals lest they do harm; and he will remove all violence and conflict.
These are no doubt the words God speaks into the heart of his wife in the lonely place. "It
will be so good, so good! Put away your harlotry and come home."
The third thing God does is renew his wife's betrothal and consummate the marriage again
in purity. Verses 19,20: "And I will betroth you to me for ever; I will betroth you to me in
righteousness and justice, in steadfast love and mercy. I will betroth you to me in
faithfulness; and you shall know the Lord." Three times: I will betroth you; I will betroth
you; I will betroth you. "We will go back to the days of our engagement. We will start over.
Harlots can start over! We will lay a fresh foundation: righteousness, justice, steadfast
love, mercy, faithfulness. Things will not only be good in the paradise around us. Things
will also be right between us. These have always been my ways; but now they will be
mutual." Yes, even a wife of harlotry can experience a new relationship of righteousness,
justice, steadfast love, mercy and faithfulness with her divine husband.
But the most daring statement of all is the last one in verse 20: "And you shall know the
Lord." To see what this means recall the peculiar use of the word "know" in the Bible. For
example, Genesis 4:1, "Adam knew Eve his wife and she conceived and bore Cain." And
Matthew 1:25, "Joseph knew her [Mary] not until she had borne a son." In the context of a
broken marriage being renewed with the fresh vows of betrothal must not the words, "and
you shall know the Lord," (v. 20) mean, you shall enjoy an intimacy like that of the purest
sexual intercourse. When the wife of harlotry returns to her husband, he will withhold
nothing. He will not keep her at a distance. The fellowship and communion and
profoundest union he will give to his prodigal wife when she comes home broken and
This is the gospel story in the Old Testament. This is the meaning of Christmas
interpreted seven centuries before Christ. God comes to woo us tenderly to himself; he
promises us fullest hope and safety; he starts over with any who will come, and offers us
the most intimate and pleasure-filled relationship possible.
And what must we do to qualify? What does he want from us? Verse 16: "In that day,
says the Lord, you will call me, 'My husband,' and no longer will you call me, "My Baal."' I
think the word Baal here has a double meaning. As the next verse shows, it means one of
the false gods of Israel's idolatry. So verse 16 means: "You will no longer include me as
one of many gods, or many lovers; you will talk to me as your only true God and
But there is another sense of the word Baal. Fifteen times in the Old Testament it simply
means "husband," but husband in the sense of owner and lord. The Baals were Israel's
hard masters as well as her lovers. In 7:14, for example, the people gashed themselves to
try to get benefits from the Baals (just like the prophets of Baal on Mt. Carmel in 1 Kings
18:28). When Israel chose a Baal for her "significant other" she chose a cruel and
merciless lord. So the other (and I think primary) meaning of Hosea 2:16 is: "Relate to me
as a loving husband, not as a harsh master or owner. In that day, says the Lord, you will
call me 'My husband' and you will no longer call me 'My Baal."'
The good news at the end of 1982 is that God wants you to love him warmly as your
husband, not just serve him dutifully as your Lord. When you think of your failures in 1982;
how little you have read his word, how burdensome prayer has felt, how many other things
of this world have give you more kicks than God, God wants you to remember that his
desire to have you back is not based on a naive estimation of your character. The point of
Hosea is that God exalts his mercy by not giving up on his wife of harlotry. The good news
of Hosea -- and of the parable of the prodigal son and of Christmas -- is that God knows
we have sold ourselves for a song in 1982, yet he is wooing us into the chambers of his
But, please take special notice of this, especially you who tend to keep God at arm's
distance from your emotions. According to Hosea 2:16, God does not want you to return
to him and say, "Yes, Sir" and set about your duties. He wants you to come into the
wilderness, to listen to him speak tenderly and to respond to him, "My husband." God
wants your heart, not just your hands, because if he has your heart he has everything.
© COPYRIGHT John Piper